Teaching and Learning the Virginia K-3 History and Social Sciences Standards of Learning













 






3.1 Overview

3.1 The student will explain how the contributions of ancient Greece and Rome have influenced the present world in terms of architecture, government (direct and representative democracy), and sports.


SUGGESTED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES FOR ANCIENT GREECE

  • Use a large world wall or floor map and have students locate the continent of Europe and where the country of Greece is today.
  • Give students a map of ancient Greece. Have students color in the land (brown or green) and water (blue).
  • Discuss the meaning of the word “democracy” (citizens vote to make their own laws). For the remainder of the class period, allow students to vote on the choices made in the classroom.
  • Explain that the idea of democracy started in ancient Greece – thus the saying “Greece is the birthplace of democracy.” Ancient Greeks had a direct democracy – everyone voted or had a voice in the laws or decisions that were made.
  • Explain that the Founders of the United States gained some of their ideas about government from studying history. They used this knowledge when they created the government of the United States. They studied the direct democracy in ancient Greece and incorporated these ideas as they framed the government of the United States.
  • Before this lesson, gather various pictures of buildings that have columns. Some examples are the Parthenon, White House, Lincoln Memorial, Governor’s Mansion in Richmond, Virginia, Capital Building, churches, etc. Show each picture to the class and tell students that the pictures all have something in common. Point out the columns in each structure.
  • Discuss the meaning of the word “architecture.” Tell students that ancient Greece used many columns in their buildings. Show and discuss a picture of the Parthenon.
  • In pairs or small groups, have students research the Olympics. Tell them to look for where the Olympics originated, what games were played, and other interesting facts. They can record their results on index cards. Possible resources could be encyclopedias, Internet, library nonfiction books, sports magazines, CDs, laser discs, and videos.
  • After gathering information, have students share their results with the class. Encourage them to show pictures. Discuss that this is a contribution from ancient Greece.
  • Make models of the Colosseum, Parthenon, and/or aqueducts from clay, paper maché, cardboard, etc.
  • Also discuss that Greeks enjoyed displaying sculptures and paintings. You can also gather a few library books to show examples to the students.
  • Create posters advertising the events held at the ancient Olympics and modern day Olympics.
  • Write postcards or travel brochures about what life was like growing up in ancient Greece.
  • Create a step or flip booklet for ancient Greece. Label the steps as follows:
    -Title page
    -Geography & Physical Characteristics
    -Human Characteristics
    -Adaptations to Environment
    -Government
    -Architecture
    -The Arts
    -Sports
    -Glossary

SUGGESTED INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES FOR ANCIENT ROME

  • Use a large world wall or floor map and have students locate the continent of Europe and where the city of Rome is today. Explain to students that Rome today is actually a city in Italy located on the continent of Europe. That city is also next to the Tiber River. However, ancient Rome (long ago) was a country (and empire) that encompassed a lot of land around the Mediterranean Sea. The ancient Roman Empire was actually located on three continents – Europe, Africa, and Asia.
  • Read and discuss a teacher-selected nonfiction book on ancient Rome.
  • Complete the following activity:
    -Divide your class into three or four teams.
    -Have each team choose a representative.
    -Tell the class that you are going to meet with their representatives and the representatives will report back to the class.
    -When you briefly “meet” with the representatives, give them something to take back and discuss with their teams and then vote on, for example, what game the class will play at recess.
    -The representatives will report back to you with the results of their team’s vote.
    -Announce the majority vote to the class.
  • Conduct a lesson about democracy making the following points:
    -Review the meaning of a direct democracy from ancient Greece -– everyone votes on the laws or decisions that were made.
    -Explain that ancient Rome had a representative democracy. Another term that has the same meaning is a republican form of government. -Discuss with the class the type of government in the United States. Explain that the United States government is a democracy - some ideas came from ancient Greece. However, we have representatives that we vote for and they make laws for us. Our country has a representative democracy - this idea came from ancient Rome.
    -Explain that the Founders of the United States gained some of their ideas about government from studying history. They used this knowledge when they created the government of the United States. They studied the representative democracy in ancient Rome and incorporated these ideas as they framed the government of the United States.
    -Conduct a lesson about architecture.
    -Before this lesson, gather pictures of buildings that have arches. Some examples are the Roman Colosseum, the Pantheon, the Richmond Coliseum, the White House, the Capitol Building, etc. Show each picture to the class and tell them that they all have something in common.
    -Review the meaning of the word “architecture.” Tell the students that ancient Romans used many arches in their buildings. Show and discuss a picture of the Roman Colosseum.
    -Next, show a picture of the Roman Aqueducts. Explain that aqueducts were used to bring water to areas where there was no water.
  • Discuss that the ancient Romans enjoyed the arts – making mosaics, sculptures, and paintings. You can also gather a few library books to show examples to the students.
  • Complete a Venn diagram. Make sure to discuss and add the following for ancient Greece: had direct democracy; used columns in their buildings (Parthenon); and started the Olympics. For ancient Rome, make the following points: had a representative democracy, used arches in the buildings (the Coliseum and aqueducts), and created mosaics. For both, list these items: used a democracy, displayed sculptures and paintings, and made significant contributions in the areas of government, architecture, and the arts.
  • Write postcards or travel brochures about what life was like in ancient Rome.
  • Create a step or flip booklet for ancient Rome.

WEB SITES

http://www.acps.k12.va.us/kelly/feltman/main_page.html
Here is a good review of ancient Greece and Rome.

http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/romans/
This site has hundreds of links to ancient civilization info, maps, videos, lesson plans, and activities.

LITERATURE LINKS

Contributions of Ancient Greece and Rome to the world (architecture, inventions, government, sports)

Taylor, Pat.
The Ancient Greeks. Heinemann Library, Crystal Lake, IL, 1997.
This age-appropriate resource offers background information on ancient Greece.

Shuter, Jane.
The Ancient Romans. Heinemann Interactive Library, Des Plaines, Ill., 1998.
This is an age-appropriate resource on ancient Rome that includes its many contributions.

Person, Anne.
Ancient Greece. Dorling Kindersley Publishing Incorporated, 2000.
This Eyewitness book describes the land, history, and civilization of Ancient Greece.

James, Simon.
Ancient Rome. Dorling Kindersley Publishing Incorporated, 2000.
This Eyewitness book documents Ancient Rome and the culture of the people who lived there.